1.        Abou-Saleh M, Coppen A.  The biology of folate (vitamin B9) in depression:  implications for nutritional hypotheses of psychoses.  J Psychiatr Res  1986;20:91-101.

2.        Abou-Saleh M, Coppen A.  Serum and red blood cell folate in depression Acta Psychiatr Scand 1989;80:78-82.

3.        Allen R, Stable S, Savage D, et al.  Metabolic abnormalities in cobalamin (vitamin B12) and folate deficiency.  FASEB J 1993;7:1344-1353.

4.        Alpert M, Silva R, Pouget E.  Folate as a predictor of response to sertraline or nortriptyline in geriatric depression.  Presented at 36th Annual Meeting of the MCDEU; May 28-31, 1996. Boca Raton, FL.

5.        Anderson G., Hrboticky N:  Approaches to assessing the dietary component of the diet-behavior connection. Nutr Rev 1986;44 (Suppl May):42-50.

6.        Anderson R, Kozlovsky A:  Chromium intake, absorption and excretion of subjects consuming self-selected diets. Am J Clin N 1985;41:1177-1183.

7.        Baghurst K, Baghurst P, Record S:  Demographic and nutritional profiles of people consuming varying levels of added sugars. Nutr Res 1992;12:1455-1465.

8.        Bell I, Edman J,  Morrow F, et al: B complex vitamin patterns in geriatric and young adult inpatients with major depression. J Am Ger So 1991;39:252-257.

9.        Bell I:  Vitamin B12 and folate in acute geropsychiatric inpatients. Nutr Rep 1991;9(1): 1, 8.

10.     Bell I, Edman J,  Morrow F, et al:  Brief communication:  Vitamin B1, B2, and B6 augmentation of tricyclic antidepressant treatment in geriatric depression with cognitive dysfunction. J Am Col N 1992;11:159-163.

11.     Bender M, Levy A, Schucker R, et al:  Trends in prevalence and magnitude of vitamin and mineral usage and correlation with health status.  J Am Diet A  1992;92:1096-1101.

12.     Bender D:  B vitamins in the nervous system:  A review.  Neurochem I 1984;6:297-321.

13.     Benton D, Cook R: The impact of selenium supplementation on mood. Biol Psychi 1991;29:1092-1098.

14.     Blum I, Vered Y, Graff E, et al:  The influence of meal composition on plasma serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations.  Metabolism  1992;41(2):137-140.

15.     Botez M, Botez T, Leville J, et al. Neuropsychological correlates of folic acid deficiency; facts and hypotheses. In:  Botez M, Reynolds E, eds.  Folic Acid in Neurology, Psychiatry, and Internal Medicine, New York, NY: Raven Press; 1979;435-460.

16.     Brewerton T, Heffernan M, Rosenthal N:  Psychiatric aspects of the relationship between eating and mood.  Nutr Rev  1986;44 (Suppl May):78-88.Vayda, William. Mood Foods. Berkeley, CA: Ulysses Press, 1995.

17.     Brewster L, Jacobson M:  The Changing American Diet:  A Chronicle of American Eating Habits from 1910-1980.  Washington, DC, Center for Science in the Public Interest, 1983.

18.     Burger S, Haas J, Habicht J;  Testing the effects of nutrient deficiencies on behavioral performance. Am J Clin N  1993;57 (Suppl): 295S-302S.

19.     Byrne A, Byrne D:  The effect of exercise on depression, anxiety, and other mood states:  A review. J Psychosom 1993;37(6):565-574

20.     Carney M:  Vitamin deficiency and mental symptoms.  Br J Psychi 1990;156:878-882.

21.     Carney M, Chary T, Laundy M, et al.  Red cell folate concentrations in psychiatric patients  J Affect Disord 1990;19:207-213.

22.     Carney M:  Vitamin deficiency and mental symptoms.  Br J Psychi  1990;156:878-882.

23.     Chouvinard G, Young S, Annable L, et al:  Tryptophan dosage critical for its antidepressant effect. Br Med J 1978;I:1422.

24.     Christensen L, Krietsch K, White B, et al:  Impact of a dietary change on emotional distress. J Abn Psych 1985;94:565-579.

25.     Christensen L, Burrows R:  Dietary treatment of depression.  Behav Ther  1990; 21:183-193.

26.     Christensen L:  the roles of caffeine and sugar in depression.  Nutr Rep 1991;9(3):16,24.

27.     Christensen L, Redig C:  Effect of meal composition on mood.  Behav Neuro 1993;107(2):346-353.

28.     Classen H: Stress and magnesium.  Artery 1981;9(3):182-189.

29.     Coppen A,  Abou-Saleh M. Wallin M, Rissanen A.: Food and mood:  Relationship between food, serotonin and affective disorders.  Acta Psychiatry Scandanavica 337 (1994):36-40.

30.     Deijen J, vander Beek E, Orlegeke J, et al:  Vitamin B-6 supplementation in elderly men:  Effects on mood, memory, performance, and mental effort.  Psychophar 1992;109(4):489-496.

31.     Delgado P, Chaney D, Price L, Landis H, Heninger G.: Neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of dietary tryptophan restriction in healthy subjects.  Life Sciences 45 (1989):2323-2332.

32.     Delgado PL, Price LH, Miller HL, et al.  Serotonin and the neurobiology of depression:  effects of tryptophan depletion in drug-free depressed patients.  Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994;51:865-874.

33.     Delgado PL, Charney DS,  Price LH, et al. Serotonin function and the mechanism of antidepressant    action:  reversal of antidepressant-induced remission by rapid depletion of plasma tryptophan. Arch Gen Psychiatry  1990;47:411-418.

34.     DiPlama J; Magnesium replacement therapy. Am Fam Phys  1990;42(1):173-176.

35.     Does dietary tryptophan influence serotonin release from brain neurons?  Nutr Rev  1987;45(3):87-89.

36.     Eastman C, Gultarte T: Vitamin B6, kynurenines, and central nervous system function: Developmental aspects. J Nutr Bioc 1992;3:618-631.

37.     Ericsson Y, Angmar-Mansson B, Flores M:  Urinary mineral ion loss after sugar ingestion.Bone Miner 1990;9:233-237.

38.     Fawaz F:  Zinc deficiency in surgical patients:  A clinical  study.  J Parent En 1985;9:364-369.

39.     Little K, Castellano X, Humphries L, et, al:  Altered zinc metabolism in mood disorder patients. Biol Psychi 1989;26:646-648.

40.     Fava M, Forus J, Alpert J, et al.  Folate, B12, and homocysteine in major depressive disorder.Presented at 149th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; May 4-9, 1996. New York, NY.      

41.     Fernstrom J.: Effects of the diet on brain neurotransmitters. Metabolism 26 (1973):207-211.

42.     Fernstrom J.:  Acute and chronic effects of protein and carbohydreate ingestion on brain tryptophan levels and serotonin synthesis. Nutr Rev. 1986;44 (Suppl May):25-36.

43.     Fernstrom J:  Dietary amino acids and brain function.  J Am Diet A 1994;94:71-77.

44.     Fine K, Santa Ana C, Porter J, et al:  Intestinal absorption of magnesium from food and supplements. J Clin Inv 1991;88:396-402.

45.     Gessa GL, Bigio G, Fadda F, et al.  Effect of the oral administration of tryptophan-free amino acid mixtures on serum tryptophan, brain tryptophan and serotonin metabolism. J Neurochem 1974; 22:869-870.

46.     Ghadirian A, Ananth J, Engelsmann F. Folic acid deficiency and depression. Psychosomatics  1980; 21:926-929.

47.     Godfrey P, Toone B, Carney M, et al:  Enhancement of recovery from psychiatric illness by methylfolate.  Lancet 1990;336:392-395.

48.     Hancock M, Hullin R, Aylard P, et al:  Nutritional state of elderly women on admission to mental hospital. Br J Psychi 1985;147:404-407.

49.     Heseker H, Kubler W, Pudel V, et al:   Psychological disorders as early symptoms of a mild to moderate vitamin deficiency.  Ann NY Acad 1992;669:352-357

50.      “How Much Does Depression Cost Society?”  Harvard Mental Health Letter, Oct. 1994.

51.     Herbert V. Experimental nutritional folate deficiency in man. Trans Assoc Am Phys 1962;75:307-320.

52.     Levitt A, Joffe R. Folate, B12, and life course of depressive illness.  Biol Psychiatry 1989:25:867-87.

 53.     Jootsen E, Vanden Berg A, Riezler R, et al:  Metabolic evidence that deficiencies of

vitamin B-12  (cobalamine), folate (vitamin B-9),  and vitamin B6 occur commonly in elderly people. Am J Clin N 1993;58:468-476.

54.     Mareschi J, Magliola C, Couzy F, et al: The well-balanced diet and the “at risk” micronutrients:

55.     A forecasting Nutrtional index.  Int J Vit N 1987;57:79-85.

56.    Matheny, Kenneth B., Riordan, Richard J. Stress and Strategies for Lifestyle Management                     (Atlanta:  Georgia State University Business Press (1992), p.12.

57.    Matchar D, Feussner J,  Watson D, et al: Significance of low serum vitamin B12 levels in the elderly. J Am Ger So 1986;34:680-681.

59.     Matheny, Kenneth B., Riordan, Richard J. Stress and Strategies for Lifestyle Management (Atlanta:  Georgia State University Business Press (1992), p.12.

60.    Maurizi C:  The therapeutic potential for tryptophan and melatonin:  Possible roles in depression,

        sleep, Alzheimer’s disease and abnormal aging.  Med Hypoth  1990;31:233-242.

61.    Metz J:  Cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency and the pathogenesis of nervous system disease.  Ann R Nutr  1992;12:59-79.

62.    Moller S:  Serotonin, carbohydrates, and atypical depression.  Pharm Tox  1992;71(S1):61-71.

63.    Moller S:  Tryptophan to competing amino acids ratio in depressive disorder: Relation to efficacy of antidepressant treatments. Acta Psyc Sc 1985;325(72):7-31.

64.     “Mood Alteration with Yoga and Swimming:  Aerobic Exercise May Not Be Necessary,” Perceptual Motor Skills 75 (1992), pp. 1331-1343.

65.     Morris D, Lubin A:  A review of the symposium  “Diet and Behavior”—a multidisciplinary evaluation. Cont Nutr  1985;10(5):1-2.

66.    Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, Spring 1980.  US Department of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration, Beltsville, MD.

67.    Nelson M:  vitamin and mineral supplementation and academic performance in school-children.  P Nutr Soc 1992;51(3):303-313.

68.     Newbold, H.L. Dr. Newbold’s Nutrition for Your Nerves (New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, 1993), pp. 159, 162,  299.

69.     Null, Gary. Nutrition and the Mind (New York:Four Walls Eight Windows, 1995), p. 44

70.    O’Dell B:  Mineral interactions relevant to nutrient requirements. J Nutr  1989;119:1832-1838.

71.    Partonen T, Lonnqvist J:  Effects of light on mood.  Ann Med  1993;25:301-302

72.    Patterson B, Black G, Rosenberger W, et al: Fruit and vegetables in the American diet:  Data from the NHANES II survey.  Am J Pub He 1990;80(12):1443-1449.

73.    Pennington J, Young B, Wilson D, et al:  Mineral content of foods and total diets:  The selected minerals in foods survey, 1982 to 1984.  Am J Diet A 1986;86:876-890.

74.    Pfeiffer, Carl C.  Mental and Elemental Nutrients (New Canaan,CT: Keats Publishing, 1992), p.116.

75.    Plasma folate and affective morbidity during long-term lithium therapy. Br J Psychiatry; 141:87-89.

76.    “Plasma Tryptophan Levels and Plasma Tryptophan/Neutral Amino Acids Ratio in Patient with Mood Disorder, Patient with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Normal Subjects,”  Psychiatry Research 44, no. 2 (1992), pp. 85-89.

77.    Podell R:  Nutritional precursors and the treatment of depression.  Postgr Med 1983;73(3):99-103.

78.    Reynolds E, Preece J, Bailey J, et al. Folate deficiency  in depressive illness. Br J Psychiatry 1970; 117:287-292.

79.    Roth, June.  The Food/Depression Connection:  Dietary Control of Allergy-Based Mood Swing.          Chicago:  Contemporary Books, Inc., 1978.

80.    Scott J:  Folate-vitamin B12 interrelationships in the central nervous system.  P Nutr Soc1992;51(2):219-224.

81.    “Seventy-Two Percent of Americans Are Magnesium-Deficient,”  Better Nutrition  for Today’s Living 57 (March 1995), p.34.

82.    Smart J:  Behavioral consequences of undernutrition.  P Nutr Soc 1993;52:189-199.

83.    Smith SE, Pihl R. Young SNm et al.  A test of possile cognitive and environmental influences on the mood lowering effect of tryptophan depletion in normal males. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1987;91:451-457.

84.    Subar A, Block G:  Use of vitamin and mineral supplements:  Demographic and amounts of nutrients consumed.  Am J Epidem 1990;132:1091-1101.

85.    “The  Treatment of Depression:  Prescribing Practices of Primary Care Physicians and Psychiatrists.” Journal of Family Practice 35, no.6 (1992).

86.     Tap Water is Dirty,”  Associated Press Report, June 1, 1995.

87.    Wadden T, Strunkard A, Smoller J.: Dieting and depression: A methodological study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 54 (1986):869-871.

88.    Weyerer Siegfried, Kupfer Brigitte.  “Physical Exercise and Psychological Health,” Sports Medicine 17, no. 2,  pp. 108-116.

89.    Wurtman, Richard J, Wurtman Judith H.  Nutrition and the Brain, Vol. 4 (New York Raven Press, 1979), pp. 161, 191-193.

90.    Wurtman R:  Aspartame effects on brain serotonin.  Am J Clin N  1987;45:799-801.

91.    Wurtman R, Wurtman J:  Carbohydrates and depression.  Sci Am  1989; January:21-33.

92.    Young SN, Smith SE, Pihl R, et al.  Tryptophan depletion causes a rapid lowering of mood in normal males.  Psychopharmacolgy (Berl)  1985;87: 173-177.

93.    Young S, Smith S, Pihl R.: Tryptophan depletion causes a rapid lowering of mood in normal males. Psychopharmacology 87 (1985):173-177.

94.    Young S: Some effects of dietary components (amino acids, carbohydrate, folic acid) on brain serotonin syntheses, mood, and behavior.  Can J Phys 1991;69:893-903. 




1.        Abraham G, Lubran M:  Serum and red cell magnesium levels in patients with premenstrual tension. Am J Clin N 1981;34:2364-2366.

2.        Alexander, Vicki, M.D. “Black Women and Health.”  On the Issues.  Vol 6, 1986.

3.        Atkinson H:  Women and Fatigue.  New York, Pocket Books, 1985.

4.        Abraham G:  Nutritional factors in the aetiology of the premenstrual tension syndromes. J Repro Med  1983;28:446-464.

5.        Bancroft J, Cook A, Williamson L:  Food craving, mood and the menstrual cycle. Psychol Med 1988;18(4):855-860.

6.        Bardwick, Judith . The Psychology of Women: A Bio-cultural Conflict (New York: Harper & Row, 1971).

7.        Barr W:  Pyridoxine supplements in premenstrual syndrome.  Practition 1984;228:425-427.

8.        Bernard, Jessie. “The Paradox of the Happy Marriage” ed. by Vivian Gornick and Barbara K. Moran, in Woman in Sexist Society: Studies in Power and Powerlessness (New York: Basic Books, 1971).

9.        Braude, Majorie, ed.  Women, Power and Therapy.  New York:  Harrington Park Press, 1988.

10.     Brush M, Perry M:  Pyridoxine and the premenstrual syndrome.  Lancet  1985;I:1399.

11.     Burke Lee, Renkin E., S., Jacobson S. Harley, “The Depressed Woman Returns,” Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol. 16, May 1967.

12.     Chung Y, Daghestani A:  Seasonal affective disorder:  Shedding light on a dark subject. Postgr Med 1989;86(5):309-314.

13.     Dohrenwend Bruce, Dohrenwend Barbara. Social Status and Psychological Disorders (New York:John Wiley, 1969).

14.     Chuong C, Dawson E, Smith E:  Vitamin E levels in premenstrual syndrome. Am J obst G 1990;163:1591-1595.

15.     Dalvit S:  the effect of the menstrual cycle on patternso food intake.  Am J Clin N 1981;34:1811.

16.     Dewar Margaret M. and Iain MacCammend,  “Depressive Breakdown in Women of the West Highlands,” American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 119, 1962.

17.     Endicott J:  The menstrual cycle and mood disorders. J Affect D 1993;29:193-200.

18.     Harrison W, Sharpe L, Endicott J:  Treatment of premenstrual symptoms.  Gen Hosp Ps  1985;7:54-65.

19.     Heller W: Gender differences in depression:  Perspectives from neuropsychology. J Affect D 1993;29:129-143.

20.     Horrobin D:  The role of essential fatty acids and prostaglandins in the premenstrual syndrome. J Repro Me 1983;38:864-870.

21.     Isaacs G, Stainer T, Sensky T, et al:  Phototherapy and its mechanism of action in seasonal affective disorder.  J Affect D 1988;14:13-19.

22.     Kasper S, Wehr T, Bartko J, et al:  Epidemiological findings of seasonal changes in mood and behavior. Arch G Psyc 1989;46:823-833.

23.     Kendall K, Schnurr P:  The effects of vitamin B6 supplementation on premenstrual symptoms. Obstet Gyn 1987;70:145-149.

24.     Kizilay P:  Predictors of depression in women.  Women Heal 1992;27(4):983-993.

25.     Krauchi K, Wirz-Justice A:  the four seasons:  food intake frequency in seasonal affective disorder in the course of a year.  Psychi R 1988;25:323-338.

26.     Krebs-Smith S, Cronin F,  Haytowitz D, et al:  Food sources of energy, macronutrients, cholesterol, and fiber in diets of women.  J Am Diet A  1992;92:168-174.

27.     Lee K, Rittenhouse C:  Prevalence of perimenstrual symptoms in employed women. Women Heal 1991;17(3):17-32.

28.     Lissner L, et al:  Variation in energy intake during the menstrual cycle:  Implications for food intake research.  Am J Clin N 1988;48:956.

29.     London R, et al:  The effect of alpha-tocopherol on premenstrual symptomatology:  A double-blind study.  J Am Col N 1983;377:1-13.

30.     London R, Bradley L, Chiamori N:  Effect of a nutritional supplement on premenstrual symptomatology in women with premenstrual syndrome: A double-blind longitudinal study. J Am Col N 1991;10(5):494-499.

31.     Matina Homer, “Fail: Bright Women,”  Psychology Today, November 1969.

32.     Morton J, Additon H, Addison R, et al: A clinical study of premenstrual tension. Am J Obst G 1953;65:1182-1191

33.     Newhouse I, Clement D,  Lai C:  Effects of iron supplementation and discontinuation on serum copper, zinc, calcium, and magnesium levels in women.  Med Sci Spt  1993;25(5):562-571.

34.     Paludi, Michele A.  The Psychology of Women.  Dubuque:  WCB Brown & Benchmark,1992.Rohrlich, Ruby. “Biology and Destiny.”  On the Issues.  Vol. 6, 1997.

35.     Pfeiffer, Carl C.  Nutrition and Mental Illness (Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press, 1987). P.31.

36.     Pivonka E, Grunewld K:  Aspartame- or sugar-sweetened beverages:  Effects on mood in young women.  J Am Diet A  1990;90:250-254.

37.     Pop V, essed G, deGeus C, et al: Prevalence of post partum depression:  Or is it post puerperium depression?  Act Obst Sc 1993;72:354-358.

38.     Pratt C:  Moderate exercise and iron status in women.  Nutr Rep  1991;9(7):48,56.

39.     Rapkin A:  The role of serotonin in premenstrual syndrome.  Clin O Gyne 1992;35(3):629-636.

40.     Rheingold Joseph, The Fear of Being a Woman  (New York: Grune and Stratton, 1964).

41.     Rickel Nathan K., “The Angry Woman Syndrome,” Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol. 24, 1971.

42.     Rogers P, Edwards S, Green M, et al:  Nutritional influences on mood and cognitive performance:  The menstrual cycle, caffeine, and dieting.  P Nutr Soc  1992;51:343-351.

43.     Rollins, Joan H.  Women’sMinds, Women’s Bodies:  The Psychology of Women in a Biosocial Context. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1996.

44.     Rosenthal N, Genhart M, Callabero B, et al:  Psychobiological effects of carbohydrate and protein- rich meals in patients with SAD and normal controls. Biol Psychi 1989;25:1029-1040.

45.     Rossignol A:  Caffeine-containing beverages and premenstrual syndrome in young women. Am J Pub He 1985;75:1335.

46.     Roverman Inge K., Donald M. Broverman, Frank E. Clarkson, Paul S.  Rosenkrantz, Susan R. Vogel, “Sex Role Stereotypes and Clinical Judgments of Mental Health,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,  Vol. 34, 1970.

47.     Ruble D, Greulich F, Pomerantz E, et al:  the role of gender-related processes in the development of sex differences in self-evaluation nd depression. J Affect D 1993;29:97-128.

48.     Schulkin, Jay.  Hormonally Induced Changes in Mind and Brain (San Diego: Academic Press, 1993), p. 270.

49.     Sherwood R, Rocks B, Stewart A, et al:  Magnesium and the prementstual syndrome. Ann Clin Bi 1986;23:667-670.

50.     Seelig M:  Interrelationship of magnesium and estrogen in cardiovascular and bone disorders, eclampsia, migraine and premenstrual syndrome.  J Am Col N 1993;12(4):442-458.

51.     Smith A, Kendrick A, Maben A:  Use and effects of food and drink in relation to daily rhythms of mood and cognitive performance.  P Nutr Soc  1992;51:325-333.

52.     Smith S, Sauder C:  Food cravings, depression, and premenstrual syndrome. Psychosom Med 1969;31(4):281-287.

53.     Spring B, Maller O, Wurtman J, et al:  Effects of protein and carbohydrate meals on mood and  performance:  Interaction with sex and age.  J Psych Res  1982/3;17(2):155-167.

54.     Wadden T, Stunkard A, Smoller J:  Dieting and depression:  A methodological study.  J Cons Clin  1986;54:869-871.

55.     Walsh, Roth Mary, ed.  The Psychology of Women:  Ongoing Debates. New Haven and London:  Yale University Press, 1987.

56.     Weissenburger J, Rush J, Giles D, et al:  Weight change in depression.  Psychi Res 1986;17:275-283.

57.     Worthington-Roberts B, Little R, Lambert M, et al:  Dietary cravings and aversions in the postpartum period.  J Am Diet A 1989;89:647-651.

58.     Wurtman J, Brzenzinski A, Wurtman R, et al:  Effect of nutrient intake on premenstrual depression. Am J Obst G 1989;161:1228-1234.




            NAME                                                          WEB ADDRESS


1.       American Demographics:                                      www.marketingtools.com

2.       American Dietetic Association:                             www.eatright.org

3.       American Psychiatric Association:                        www.psych.org

4.       Federal Statistics:                                                   www.fedstats.gov/programs/index

5.       Internet Mental Health:                                         www.mentalhealth.com

6.       Mental Health InfoSource:                                    www.mhsource.com

7.       Mental Health Net:                                                www.cmhc.com

8.       United States Department of Agriculture:            www.usda.gov